STUDY OF TUTUILA
Top height : 630 meters . Lowest : - 5000 meters . Swell : 1.50 - 2.10 meters .
Winds : average 4.8 m/s from 3.8 to 5.5 m/s .(except during hurricanes /thyphoon) .(Samoa is not suitable for traditional wind turbines)
Electricity annual production 130 million of kWh . The grid capacity is around 33 MW .(annual Invoiced :approx 30 to 33 millions US$ )?
kWh retail price : 0.26 US$ in 2006 and 0.15 US$ in 2002 .
Daily oil import : 4 000 bbl/d . Annual import : about 1.46 million barrels .(85 million US$).(Share electricity/transportation ?).
For 1 square meter of turbines Motorwind can generate .
It will take 1.4 million square meter of turbines to cover 100% of Samoa needs . (about 15 million US$).
By using Motorwave :
Each motor will produce about 400 kW . It will then take about 70 Motors .(about 14 million US$).
It will cover about 3 square kilometers of sea .
Remark : there is a natural site between the main island and the small one on the north .Distance between the two island is approx 1.5 km.
Motorwave can be attached between .
Samoa being an old volcano ,there should be a natural site to make a reservoir (hydro dam)and store water for electricity production .
I did not find specific infos and we need input from Samoan authorities .
Most probably the best setting will be a mix of Motorwave and Motorwind .
Hydrogen production .
It takes 50 kWh to produce 1 kg of hydrogen gas .
One Motorwave can produce approx 70 tons/year .
For a farm of 300 Motorwave ( 12 square km 120 MW ) annual production = 21 000 tons .
The liquefaction of hydrogen will have to be made on solid ground at the beginning .
The cold necessary water (4 degrees ) will have to be pumped from deep sea (approx 3000 meter ) with an underwater flexible hose of approx
20 to 25 km .To pose a fixed solid underwater pipeline of such length poses too much technical problems .
Calculations need to be made on the negative calories cost . At the beginning we might need to use Motorwave or Motorwind instead of
For a team of 50 people it takes one week to manufacture one Motorwave .
It will then take about 5 years to complete 300 Motorwave .
Production can be speedup up by increasing the staff number to about 1 machine every two days .
If the first application is supply of electricity to Samoa then part of the financing will come from the reduction of oil purchase.
It should take approx 1 year to build a mix of Motorwave and Motorwind to cover the electricity needs.
After that all capacity will be used for hydrogen production and export.
Hydrogen production and local electricity consumption can be easily regulated ,with local consumption being the first priority.
The kWh could be reduced to final consumers to a reasonable 0.15 US$.
Visit and Identification of a proper site . 2 to 4 weeks . Samoa
A) location for Motorwave
B) location for Motorwind
C) location of reservoir
D) location of power plant
E) location of workshop
F) location for assembly line
G) location for hydrogen production plant .
H)location of hydrogen storage .
I) blueprint drawing
Building of a scale one Motorwave and testing . 3 months . Hong Kong
Definition of the final design .
Purchase of materials (china) for a first stage of 10 Motorwave(4MW) and 10 000 square meter of Motorwind (200 kW),
generators ,pipes ,other equipments and shipment . 3 months
Organization of factory/workshop in Samoa .
Assembling site .
Staff recruitment for manufacturing ,installation ,building .Including 1 architect and 2 mechanical engineers .
Building of reservoir and piping .
Building of power plant (hydro dam) .
Manufacturing start of Motorwave and installation .2 months.
purchase of material for hydrogen an storage plant . 2 months
Building of hydrogen plant and storage plant . 4 months .
Study by the council of sustainable energy for small islands
conclusion of this study point out that most of the experiences in renewable energy on islands have failed because the machines being imported
from abroad ,the locals can not handle the maintenance and maintenance team from manufacturers are not easily available.
This problem is solved by manufacturing locally.
| Physical Properties of hydrogen
Molecular Weight: 2.016
Boiling Point @ 1 atm: -423.0°F (-252.8°C, 20oK)
Freezing Point @ 1 atm: -434.5°F (-259.2°C, 14oK)
Critical Temperature: -399.8°F (-239.9°C)
Critical Pressure: 188 psia (12.9 atm)
Density, Liquid @ B.P., 1 atm: 4.23 lb./cu.ft.
Density, Gas @ 68°F (20°C), 1 atm: 0.005229 lb./cu.ft.
Specific Gravity, Gas (Air = 1) @ 68°F (20°C), 1 atm: 0.0696
Specific Gravity, Liquid @ B.P., 1 atm: 0.0710
Specific Volume @ 68°F (20°C), 1 atm: 192 cu. ft./lb.
Latent Heat of Vaporization: 389 Btu/lb. mole
Flammable Limits @ 1 atm in air 4.00%: -74.2% (by Volume)
Flammable Limits @ 1 atm in oxygen 4.65%: -93.9% (by Volume)
Detonable Limits @ 1 atm in air 18.2%: -58.9% (by Volume)
Detonable Limits @ 1 atm in oxygen 15%: -90% (by Volume)
Autoignition Temperature @ 1 atm: 1060°F (571°C)
Expansion Ratio, Liquid to Gas, B.P. to 68°F (20°C): 1 to 848
|| Shipping specifications
Small-size Gas Car.: 3 - 8,000 cbm
Med.-size Gas Car.: 20 - 40,000 cbm
Large-size Gas Car.: 60 - 80, 000 cbm
VLGC/LNG Car.: 100 - 180,000 cbm
1 CBM of liquid hydrogen weights 70 kg .
One 8 000 CBM cargo ship can load : 560 tons of liquid hydrogen
One 40 000 CBM cargo ship : 2 800 tons of liquid hydrogen
One 80 000 CBM cargo ship : 5 600 tons of liquid hydrogen
One 180 000 CBM cargo ship :12 600 tons of liquid hydrogen
|Wind in m/s
|Power in watts